By M.D. Tripathi KD
This e-book offers a extensive assurance from rules of drug motion to foundation in their healing use and ability of rational choice of medicinal drugs. additionally mechanisms of drug motion are defined in a simplified demeanour. crucial pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and knowledge of dosage is integrated to permit prescribing with realizing and self belief.
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Extra info for Essentials of Medical Pharmacology
G. morphine, quinine, etc. are largely ionized and are absorbed only on reaching the duodenum. However, even for acidic drugs absorption from sfomach is slower, because the mucosa is thick, covered with mucus and the surface area is small. Absorbing surface area is much larger in the small intestine due to villi. Thus, faster gastric emptying accelerates drug absorption in general. Dissolution is a surface phenomenory therefore, particle sizeof the drug in solid dosageform goveffrs rate of dissolution and in turn rate of absorption.
It is a measure of the fraction (F ) of administered dose z z THERAPEUTIC CONCN 8 U' IL Fig. m. injection is less common, but may occur due to local binding of the drug. Oral formulations of a drug from different manufacturers or different batchesfrom the same manufacturer may have the same amount of the drug (chemically equivalent) but may not yield the same blood levels-biologically inequiaalent. Two preparations of a drug are considered bioequiaalentwhen the rate and extent of bioavailability of the drug from them is not significantly different under suitable test conditions.
Ii) Probenecid decreases the concentration of nitrofurantoin in urine, increasesthe duration of action of penicillin/ampicillin and impairs secretion of methotrexate. (iii) Sulfinpyrazone inhibits excretion of tolbutamide. (iv) Quinidine decreasesrenal and biliary clearance of digoxin by inhibiting efflux carrier P-gp. Tubular transport mechanisms are not well developed atbirth. g. penicillin, cephalosporins, aspirin is longer in neonates. These systems mature during infancy. Renal function again progressively declines after the age of 50 years; renal clearance of most drugs is substantially lower in the elderly (>75 yr).