Epidemiological Research: Terms and Concepts by O. S. Miettinen

By O. S. Miettinen

This booklet is through a unmarried writer – a person who, after scientific university, has dedicated half-a-century of full-time attempt to ever higher comprehend either medical and neighborhood medication and the examine that's had to produce the medical knowledge-base of those.

The publication is geared up so one can handle in separate sections first the preparatory issues of medication (clinical and epidemiological), technology normally, and statistics (mathematical); then subject matters of epidemiological examine right; and, ultimately, subject matters of ‘meta-epidemiological’ medical study. In these major sections, another grouping relies at the distraction among items and techniques of research. during this framework, the actual subject matters are addressed either descriptively and quasi-prescriptively, usually with a couple of explicatory annotations.

This ebook is meant to serve and a handbook for whomever is, in no matter what approach, serious about epidemiological or ‘meta-epidemiological’ medical examine. yet along with, it's meant to function a textbook for the scholars in introductory classes on ‘epidemiological’ learn – to which finish there's a instructed hierarchy of the strategies that will quite be covered.

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Note: There are clinical as well as laboratory tests. ) Therapeutic/therapy – Agent or action serving to ameliorate the course of an illness. (Cf. ‘Palliation/palliative’; Gr. ’) Treatment – Therapeutic or palliative action; also: intervention on the course of a (patho)physiologic risk factor. Underlying cause – See ‘Cause’ (Note 2). I – 2. TERMS AND CONCEPTS OF SCIENCE I – 2. 1. Introduction Epidemiological research, and clinical research just the same, is science in the original and still principal meaning of the word, namely that for which the term used to be ‘natural philosophy’ or ‘natural history’ (Gr.

Note 1: A conclusion is formally correct if the logic in the deduction is correct. It is also materially correct and hence totally correct only if, in addition, the two premises in the syllogism (the major and minor premise) are (materially) correct. (Cf. ’) I – 2. Terms and Concepts of Science 33 Note 2: In empirical science there is no justifiable place for inductive ‘conclusions’ such as are now commonly required (by journal editors) in the Abstract or Summary of each research report. (Cf. ’) Note 3: Useful deductive conclusions are possible in empirical science.

In truth, the I – 1. Terms and Concepts of Medicine 27 distribution of a diagnostic test’s result is prone to be highly dependent on the pre-test diagnostic profile [28]. Note 2: Both of these terms are misnomers for their referent concepts. Examples: A diagnostic test the result of which is a highly discriminating indicator of risk for the illness at issue is not ‘sensitive’ to actual presence of the illness; and any test from among the thousands that are available has, in these terms, a high ‘specificity’ to almost any illness!

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