By Fabrizio Ruggeri, Ron S. Kenett, Frederick Faltin
A necessary reference for statisticians, engineers, and caliber execs in undefined, academia, and govt, Encyclopedia of information in caliber and Reliability bargains a necessary wisdom resource in a space the place one is sorely wanted. supplying a realistic orientation with a wide choice of case stories, this multi-volume cutting-edge ebook examines the common use of Six Sigma. This well known caliber measuring process is a hugely adaptable instrument with many wide-reaching functions in a wide number of sectors.
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Extra info for Encyclopedia of Statistics in Quality and Reliability
Quoting the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance to industry on statistical principles for clinical trials: “In a factorial design, two or more treatments are evaluated simultaneously through the use of varying combinations of the treatments. The simplest example is the 2 × 2 factorial design in which subjects are randomly allocated to one of the four possible combinations of two treatments, A and B. These are: A alone; B alone; both A and B; neither A nor B. In many cases, this design is used for the specific purpose of examining the interaction of A and B.
By contrast, designs for computer experiments that produce deterministic results usually employ other design strategies, such as Latin hypercube designs (see Latin Hypercube Designs), to allow smooth nonlinear functions to be fit in the design region. However, if a large number of factors are being studied, and most are expected to be monotonic in the response, then 2k−p designs may still be useful. Example Our example comes from an experiment that was described in Snee et al. . ) Viscosity measurements made in an analytical laboratory appeared to be quite variable, and it was not clear how much of this variation was due to the product itself and how much was due to the variation in the measurement system.
When we run the experiment and analyze the data, the effects of D and of ABC cannot be distinguished. We say that they are aliased (see Aliasing in Fractional Designs) or confounded with each other. In fact, the effect calculated from this column turns out to be the sum of the D and the 2 Table 1 Fractional Factorial Designs A 23 design augmented to a 24−1 design A B C AB AC BC D ≡ ABC −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 1 −1 −1 1 1 −1 −1 −1 −1 1 1 1 1 1 −1 −1 1 1 −1 −1 1 1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 −1 1 1 1 −1 −1 −1 −1 1 1 −1 1 1 −1 1 −1 −1 1 B C E B ABC effects.