By Károly Trombitás (auth.), Henk L. Granzier, Gerald H. Pollack (eds.)
Elastic filaments refer usually to titin, the biggest of all recognized proteins. Titin used to be stumbled on at the beginning in muscle cells, the place it interconnects the thick filament with the Z-line. Titin kinds a molecular spring that's answerable for protecting the structural integrity of contracting muscle, making sure effective muscle contraction. extra lately, it has develop into transparent that titin isn't really limited to muscle cells on my own. for instance, titin is located in chromosomes of neurons and in addition in blood platelets. This subject is quick changing into a focus for study in figuring out viscoelastic homes on the molecular, mobile, and tissue degrees. In titin could lie a typical foundation for organic viscoelasticity. It has develop into transparent that titin could carry the foremost to sure medical anomalies. for instance, it's transparent that titin-based ventricular stiffness is modulated through calcium and that titin is liable for the altered stiffness in cardiomyopathies. it's also transparent from facts from a gaggle of Finnish households that titin mutations may well underlie a few muscular dystrophies and that with different mutations chromatids fail to split in the course of mitosis. therefore, it really is transparent that this protein may have vital scientific implications stemming from its biomechanical position. One element of this box is the bringing jointly of bioengineers with scientific researchers and biologists. Genetic and biochemical facets of titin-related proteins are being studied including front-line engineering methods designed to degree the mechanics of titin both in small aggregates or in unmarried molecules.
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Additional info for Elastic Filaments of the Cell
Thus, the continuity of ghost myofibrils is evidently due to "artifact" connection of the freed connectin filaments. , 1994). 1 Figure 1. Behavior of connectinfilaments in a rabbit psoas sarcomere when myosin is solubilized. Intact sarcomere (top); when extracted with HasselbachSchneider solution, most offreed connectin filaments retract toward Z-disc (middle); afew connectinfilaments from both sides ofthe Z-discs in a sarcomere bind to each other (bottom). 6 M KI to remove actin filaments. M, M line; Z, Z-disc.
In addition, antibodies to titin that are available are rapidly allowing for the refinement ofour knowledge of titin's elastic spring properties. Knowledge of the nature and structure of vertebrate titins that may also be expressed in nonmuscle tissues may be broadened using these antibodies. *Both authors contributed equally to the work. Elastic Filaments ofthe Cell, edited by Granzier and Pollack Kluwer AcademiclPlenum Publishers, 2000 35 36 Titin isofonn diversity Introduction Striated muscle myofibrils are composed of myosin-based thick filaments and actin-based thin filaments.
Kimura S, Maruyama K. Preparation of native connectin from chicken breast muscle. J Biochem 1983;94:2083-2085. Kimura S, Maruyama K. Isolation of a-connectin, an elastic protein, from rabbit skeletal muscle. J Biochem 1989;106:952-954. Kimura S, Matsuura T, Ohtsuka S, Nakauchi Y, Matsuno A, Maruyama K. Characterization and localization of a-connectin (titin 1): an elastic protein isolated from rabbit skeletal muscle. J Muscle Res Cell MotilI992;13:39-47. Labeit S, Kolmerer B. Titins: giant proteins in charge of muscle ultrastructure and elasticity.