By Jeremy Black (auth.)
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Extra info for Eighteenth Century Europe 1700–1789
Less spectacular than the bringing of more intensive agriculture to the frontier lands of Austria and Russia was the process of internal colonisation elsewhere in Europe. It was a common theme of agrarian activity throughout the continent. In much of Europe it enjoyed government support. A French declaration of 1766 granted exemption from tax and tithe to land abandoned for at least 40 years that was brought into cultivation. In areas such as regions of Spain and Hesse Cassel, hitherto without settled agriculture, villages were created thanks to government initiative.
In the case ofthe Austrian Balkan frontier lands a significant percentage of the population were Slavs, particularly Serbs, who had fled Turkish rule in the 1690s. About 40,000 Serbians led by Arsenije IV, the Patriarch ofPec, had moved in 24 Eighteenth-century Europe 1700-1789 this period. A large number of the migrants to the new lands were from central or western Europe, and formed part of the tendency of people to move in search of agrarian opportunity within a continent where the possibility of acquiring land varied gready, and agriculture was the principal source of employment and wealth.
An alternative source of energy to water was wind, but windmills were affected by storms. Agriculture was naturally vulnerable to the weather. There were few improved crop strains, and rainy winters produced diseased and swollen crops, while late frosts attacked wheat. The frosts of 1709 killed most of the lemon trees ne ar Hostile environment 15 Genoa, ending the export of the product. Houses were affected by lightning and susceptible to fires, such as the terrible fires at Rennes in 1720, Vyborg in 1738 and Moscow in 1753.