By Maria J. Leandro (auth.), Xavier Bosch, Manuel Ramos-Casals, Munther A Khamashta (eds.)
This ebook presents an in depth assessment of B-cell directed remedies in sufferers with rheumatic and systemic autoimmune illnesses, together with rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren syndrome, ANCA-associated vasculitis and cryoglobulinemia. Organ-specific autoimmune ailments are mentioned with admire to using B-cell directed treatments in neurological autoimmune illnesses and autoimmune cytopenias. events during which B-cell exact treatment could be indicated are pointed out, thereby delivering entire aid for healing judgements at the foundation of the newest released proof. The e-book additionally deals a worthwhile reference instrument for rheumatologists, internists, nephrologists, immunologists, and all experts fascinated with the multidisciplinary care of sufferers with rheumatic and systemic autoimmune diseases.
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Additional info for Drugs Targeting B-Cells in Autoimmune Diseases
2011). The basis for such confounding outcomes is unclear, but might reflect unwanted effects on B cell selection, or the lack of activity on relevant subsets in some subjects. For example, since BLyS levels are inversely related to mature B cell numbers, serum BLyS levels increase when B cells are ablated (Cambridge et al. 2006; Kreuzaler et al. 2012). Thus, depletion of mature pre-immune B cells pools without comcomitantly limiting BLyS availability could lead to temporarily relaxed TR selection, affording entry of autoreactive clonotypes to mature naı¨ve pool (Cambridge et al.
Thus, under normal physiological conditions, only about 30 % of TR B cells—and thus about 3 % of the original IMM B cell cohort—successfully continue to the mature FO or MZ pools (Allman et al. 1993). Importantly, and in contrast to BM selection, the stringency of peripheral tolerance is flexible and determined through interclonal competition Understanding B Cell Biology 19 based on BCR signal strength and the ability to acquire BLyS (Cyster et al. 1994; Thien et al. 2004; Hondowicz et al. 2007).
Am J Transplant 6:859–866 Pillai S, Baltimore D (1987) Formation of disulphide-linked mu 2 omega 2 tetramers in pre-B cells by the 18K omega-immunoglobulin light chain. Nature 329:172–174 Pillai S, Cariappa A (2009) The follicular versus marginal zone B lymphocyte cell fate decision. Nat Rev Immunol 9:767–777 Pillai S, Cariappa A, Moran ST (2005) Marginal zone B cells. Annu Rev Immunol 23:161–196 Pinna D, Corti D, Jarrossay D, Sallusto F, Lanzavecchia A (2009) Clonal dissection of the human memory B-cell repertoire following infection and vaccination.