By Miquel Porta
The hot, thoroughly revised, and up-to-date version of this vintage textual content --sponsored by means of the overseas Epidemiological organization (IEA) and formerly edited via John Last-- continues to be the definitive dictionary in epidemiology world wide. in truth, with contributions from over 220 epidemiologists and different clients of epidemiology from around the world, it's greater than a dictionary: it contains motives and reviews on either middle epidemiologic phrases and on different medical phrases suitable to all execs in medical drugs and public wellbeing and fitness, in addition to to pros within the different health and wellbeing, lifestyles, and social sciences. somebody looking readability on epidemiologic and methodological definitions vital to human well-being will locate it right here. at the eve of a box journey to a overseas land, a wellbeing and fitness scientist remarked that if he needed to restrict his expert library to at least one quantity on epidemiology, this might be the booklet he would select.
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The hot, thoroughly revised, and up-to-date variation of this vintage textual content --sponsored by way of the foreign Epidemiological organization (IEA) and formerly edited by means of John Last-- is still the definitive dictionary in epidemiology world wide. in truth, with contributions from over 220 epidemiologists and different clients of epidemiology from around the world, it's greater than a dictionary: it comprises motives and reviews on either middle epidemiologic phrases and on different clinical phrases correct to all execs in scientific drugs and public health and wellbeing, in addition to to pros within the different well-being, lifestyles, and social sciences.
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Additional info for Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th Edition
See also conﬁdentiality; consent bias; privacy. AUTOPSY DATA Data derived from autopsied deaths; used, for instance, to study aspects of the natural history of disease or trends in frequency of disease. Autopsies are done on nonrandomly selected persons; ﬁndings should therefore be generalized only with great caution. See also bias in autopsy series. 13 AUXILIARY HYPOTHESIS BIAS A form of rescue bias and thus of interpretive bias, which occurs in introducing ad hoc modiﬁcations to imply that an unanticipated ﬁnding would have occurred otherwise had the experimental conditions been different.
The lighter area represents cases that are attributable to the exposure (attributable risk, AR) and that would not have occurred in the absence of the exposure. It is assumed that in the absence of this hazardous exposure, the incidence would be IU in the whole population. From Spasoff R, 1999. With permission. ATTRIBUTABLE FRACTION (EXPOSED) [Syn: attributable proportion (exposed), attributable risk, etiological fraction (exposed), relative attributable risk]. With a given outcome, exposure factor, and population, the attributable fraction among the exposed is the proportion by which the incidence rate of the outcome among those exposed would be reduced if the exposure were eliminated.
Food samples, animal feed). , analyses of concentrations of environmental chemical agents in samples of urine, blood, or adipose tissue). S. cdc. de/survey-e). See also monitoring; surveillance. BIOLOGICAL PLAUSIBILITY The causal criterion or consideration that an observed, presumably causal association is plausible on the basis of existing biomedical knowledge. 21 Birth cohort On a schematic continuum including possible, plausible, compatible, and coherent, the term plausible is not a demanding or stringent requirement, given the many biological mechanisms that often may underlie clinical and epidemiological observations; hence, in assessing causality, it may be logically more appropriate to require coherence (biological as well as clinical and epidemiological).