By Pollack J.
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Extra info for Connectionism - Past, Present, and Future [jnl article]
But neither Italy nor Greece was ready to deal, either politically or administratively, with a sudden influx of migrants. It must be noted that, according to Eurostat (2003) figures, Italy, Greece and Germany have already entered a demographic process of ageing and population decline, while only the UK has not yet reached that watershed. There appears to be a paradox between the actual population development and a country’s immigration policy. As the country which is least affected by population ageing processes, the UK displays the most positive attitude towards immigration, while those countries that have already entered the process of a population decrease – Germany, 43 44 Case Studies Greece and Italy – seem to struggle most with accepting immigrant populations.
Both Italy and Greece share an oversized state apparatus, inefficient administration and a type of clientelistic relations as common features that prevail within their political systems. , 2003b). The UK and Germany both experience well-established rational and efficient public services, though Germany preserves the post-war idea of social protection, while the UK moves towards a targeting approach, thereby diminishing social protection and labour market regulations. : 196). The Northern and the Southern countries also differ in terms of welfare policies (caring versus neglecting), traditions of internal controls and labour market regulations (lax versus rigid), and public cultures (authoritarian versus liberal).
2. Sassen (1996) puts the figure at 4–5 million in 1993, but it may be assumed that, in the meantime, the numbers have risen. 3. Adding the lowest estimation of all countries results in 22 million; adding the highest estimation of all countries results in 44 million. But for many countries not even ‘guestimations’ are available, hence the overall figure could very well be much higher. 4. For this argument and further references see also OECD, 1990: 67. 5. Meanwhile, in Australia, ‘queue jumper’ has become another synonym for illegal immigrant.