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409,466–468 Recent research reveals that modifying cytokinin metabolism improves crop yields. 426 This result suggests that meristem cells autonomously produce active cytokinins for continuous cell division. 468,474 The reduced cell division activity in primary roots of these mutants might be a side effect of a structural defect in roots and/or caused by a distinct signaling network for activation of cell division between primary and adventitious roots. 479 A similar phenotype is also observed in multiple mutants of Arabidopsis genes related to cytokinin signaling,468,474,480 indicating that genes involved in cytokinin signaling are important regulators of vascular development.
One of the four rice ENT gene products, OsENT2, mediates the uptake of cytokinin nucleoside as well as that of adenosine451 with higher affinity to iPR 48 Plant Hormones than tZR. 370 However, these results were obtained by in vitro studies using the heterologous yeast expression system. Further characterization using loss-of-function mutants should provide definitive evidence for the physiological role of the cytokinin transport candidates. 453 Delay of leaf senescence by exogenous application of cytokinins has been confirmed by numerous studies,454 suggesting that cytokinins are key components in the regulation of leaf senescence.
Figure 22 Current model of cytokinin degradation in higher plants. CKX utilizes also iPR, iPRMP, iP9G, tZ, tZR, and tZ9G in Arabidopsis. The second step of the reaction is likely nonenzymatic. Arabidopsis,446 whereas reduction of OsCKX2 by natural variation results in increases in cytokinin levels in rice,448 indicating the central role of CKX in the control of cytokinin levels in plants. 4 Translocation Recent studies on purine and nucleoside transporters suggest that these proteins may function in cytokinin transport.