Communities and Caring: The Mixed Economy of Welfare by Marjorie Mayo

By Marjorie Mayo

Communities and Caring explores the theoretical history of social coverage debates round the combined economic climate of welfare when it comes to neighborhood participation and group improvement. when supplying a severe research of latest correct Theories, the booklet explores replacement methods according to expanding responsibility and democratic pluralism, in the framework of lively group participation. Drawing upon diversified reports either in Europe (including japanese, in addition to Western Europe), within the usa and within the 3rd international, Marjorie Mayo emphasises the significance of constant public area aid and assets for neighborhood participation and improvement; with out such underlying public region aid, neighborhood participation won't be able to fulfill neighborhood wishes.

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As Mishra (1990) and others have argued, there is no necessary convergence between one type of The Mixed Economy of Welfare 27 mix and another. There may indeed have been mounting global economic pressures that have resulted in increasing social need amongst particular social groups, such as the unemployed on the one hand, and increasing efforts to contain public welfare spending on the other. But government responses have varied. Austria and Sweden (at least until the electoral defeat of the Swedish Social Democrats in 1991) provided examples of strategies to maintain a corporatist approach to the welfare state, with strong state intervention to maintain employment, and public welfare policies.

It is of course also important to emphasise that racism and sexism are by no means confined to the public sector. Discrimination and oppression have occurred, and do still occur, in the private sector, even when women and black people are prepared to pay privately for services. For example discrimination has taken place in housing finance, with women and black and ethnic minority groups having found it harder to obtain mortgages, and with particular neighbourhoods being 'redlined' or effectively boycotted by savings and loan associations because they were seen as subject to racial change, and therefore not a good credit risk (see, for example, Jean Pogge and David Flax-Hatch, in Nyden and Wiewel, 1991).

Examples of this type of thinking can be found, in the work of Illich on education (Illich, 1973) and the work of Ward on housing (Ward, 1976). Since libertarian socialists share reformist and Marxist objectives of promoting the democratisation of welfare provision through the enhancement of cooperation, participation and community control, there is considerable common ground, and scope for alliances to be built, around the joint defence and improvement of welfare provision. But there have also been important differences arising from contrasting views on the role of the state, and the ultimate desirability or undesirability of strategies based upon the preservation of the framework of public-sector responsibility underpinned by public-sector resource provision.

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