By Dale H. Clayton, Sarah E. Bush, Kevin P. Johnson
Following an creation to coevolutionary thoughts, the authors mix experimental and comparative host-parasite ways for trying out coevolutionary hypotheses to discover the impact of ecological interactions and coadaptation on styles of diversification and codiversification between interacting species. Ectoparasites—a different assemblage of organisms that levels from herbivorous bugs on crops, to monogenean flatworms on fish, and feather lice on birds—are robust versions for the examine of coevolution simply because they're effortless to monitor, mark, and count number. As lice on birds and mammals are everlasting parasites that spend their whole lifecycles at the our bodies in their hosts, they're ultimate to producing an artificial evaluation of coevolution—and, thereby, provide an exhilarating framework for integrating the recommendations of coadaptation and codiversification.
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Extra info for Coevolution of Life on Hosts: Integrating Ecology and History
6. Interface of coadaptation and codiversification. Coadaptation is the joint microevolution of interacting species in response to reciprocal selection. Codiversification is the correlated diversification of interacting lineages. 1). areas where red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus) are the dominant seed predator and outcompete crossbills, the cones are smaller and the birds have smaller beaks. Because populations of crossbills with different beak sizes do not interbreed readily, crossbills in regions with and without squirrels have undergone speciation.
Simplified divergence time chronogram (in millions of years) for Psocoptera (booklice and barklice) and Phthiraptera (parasitic lice from birds, in black, and mammals, in grey) from Smith et al. (2011). Dates were established based on several calibration points including (a) Megamenopon (plate 3), a fossil louse that lived at least 44 million years ago (mya), (b) a fossil liposcelidid (booklouse) that lived at least 100 mya, as well as several other calibration points based on the host (bird and mammal) fossil record.
2008). Ancient parasitic interactions are also apparent in the fossil record; fossil angiosperm i ntr o d u ctio n to co e vo lutio n 15 leaves reveal damage from 97-million-year-old lepidopteran leaf miners (Labandeira et al. 1994, 2014). Even older fossils—from more than 356 million years ago—document interactions between liverworts in the Middle Devonian and their arthropod herbivores (Labandeira 2013). These fossils suggest that oils in the cells of liverworts were involved in chemical defense, similar to the terpenoid oil bodies of modern liverworts.