CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for by Taoufik Bourdi

By Taoufik Bourdi

During this ebook, the authors define special layout method for speedy frequency hopping synthesizers for RF and instant communications functions. there's nice emphasis on fractional-N delta-sigma established section locked loops from requirements, approach research and structure making plans to circuit layout and silicon implementation. The constructed concepts within the ebook can assist in designing very low noise, excessive velocity fractional-N frequency synthesizers.

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Extra resources for CMOS Single Chip Fast Frequency Hopping Synthesizers for Wireless Multi-Gigahertz Applications: Design Methodology, Analysis, and Implementation (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)

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It can be seen from Figure 3-6 that the gain drops to 1 (0 dB) at the specified LBW frequency (100 kHz) and the phase is at its peak of í124o which corresponds to a phase margin of 56o (180o–124o). The loop filter transfer function Z(s) is also plotted in Figure 3-8. The gain of Z(s) shows the change in the 20 dB/decade slope for fp /10 (10 kHz) and 10fp (1 MHz). 23 Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizers Open-Loop Gain Transfer Function 200 100 20˜log Aol (f) 0 100 200 100 3 1 10 4 1 10 5 f 1 10 6 1 10 6 1 10 1 10 7 Opn-Loop Phase Transfer Function 100 120 180 ˜arg (Aol (f)) 140 S 160 180 100 3 1 10 4 1 10 5 f 1 10 1 10 Figure 3-6.

The divider adds '6 noise to the frequency variable then divides the sum by the average divide ratio. The simulation results obtained in this chapter and measured results of subblocks of the chip designed in chapter 5 contribute to the optimum design and implementation of fractional-N synthesizers presented in chapters 5 and 6. 2 PHASE-DOMAIN MODEL Figure 4-1 shows a block diagram of a '6-based fractional-N synthesizer. 11a frequencies that will be described in chapter 5. However, for simplicity, Figure 4-1 shows the synthesized frequency to be two-thirds of the desired frequency.

11a bands. The CadenceTM model of this synthesizer is shown in Figure 4-2. The PLL model is a phase-domain model; in steady state, the VCO model generates a ramp instead of an oscillatory voltage (voltage-domain model). Figure 4-1. A Conventional '6-Based Fractional-N Frequency Synthesizer Tuning Curve PFD/CP LUT ) 40 MHz = 40V Integrator ³ CP Divider '6 MMD Frequency VCO Frequency Figure 4-2. Phase-Domain Model of the Synthesizer VCO phase System Simulation of '6 -Based Fractional-N Synthesizers 47 The purpose of behavioral modeling of the fractional-N '6-based PLL is to check for performance limitations, identify dominant noise sources, automate loop filter optimization, and generate PFD/CP linearity specifications.

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