By G. Balakrish Nair, Yoshifumi Takeda (eds.)
The so much feared characteristic of the human pathogen Vibrio cholerae is its skill to reason outbreaks that unfold like wildfire, thoroughly overwhelming public well-being platforms and inflicting frequent anguish and demise. This quantity starts off with an outline of the contrasting styles of outbreaks attributable to the classical and El Tor biotypes of V. cholerae. next chapters learn cholera outbreaks intimately, together with attainable resources of an infection and molecular epidemiology on 3 assorted continents, the emergence of recent clones throughout the bactericidal choice strategy of lytic cholera phages, the movement and transmission of clones of the pathogen in the course of outbreaks and novel ways to modeling cholera outbreaks. another contribution bargains with the appliance of the genomic sciences to track the unfold of cholera epidemics and the way this data can be utilized to regulate cholera outbreaks. The booklet closes with an research of the aptitude use of killed oral cholera vaccines to prevent the unfold of cholera outbreaks.
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Extra resources for Cholera Outbreaks
This explosive outbreak of cholera, which affected Rwandan refugees, resulted in about 70,000 cases and 12,000 deaths (Siddique et al. 1995). 2 Genesis of Vibrio cholerae O139: A Bewildering Event in the History of Cholera The emergence of V. cholerae O139 Bengal as the second etiologic agent of epidemic cholera in 1992 in the south Indian coastal city of Madras has changed the long-held dogma that only V. cholerae belonging to serogroup O1 are capable of causing epidemic (and pandemic) cholera.
Cholera caused by the Inaba serotype was also reported from other parts of India such as Cholera Outbreaks in the El Tor Biotype Era 33 Kolkata, Orissa, Andaman and Nicobar Islands (Dutta et al. 2006; Raychoudhuri et al. 2007; Pal et al. 2006; Sugunan et al. 2007). These Inaba strains had unique PFGE (pulsotype H1) and ribotype (RIV) profiles that were not recorded before. After its first appearance in July 2004, the Inaba serotype completely replaced the dominant Ogawa serotype from May 2005 in Kolkata (Raychoudhuri et al.
Since the first outbreak in 1970 in Guinea, cholera recurred every 8 years till 1994 (Boiro et al. 1999). Based on the reported cases, cholera first appeared in Burundi, Zaire, and Congo during 1978–1979 (Yala et al. 1982) and in South Africa in 1980 (Küstner et al. 1981). Vibrio cholerae O1 Inaba was associated with African cholera for many years (Mugoya et al. 2008). Early cholera outbreaks (1971–1975) in Algeria were caused by the serotype Ogawa (Guechi and Mered 1978). In Zaria, Nigeria, Hikojima serotype that reacts with both Ogawa and Inaba antisera was prevalent from 1976 to 1978, but Ogawa became dominant from 1984 to 1986 (Onyemelukwe and Lawande 1991).