By Dr. Charles Tomasino
Monograph written for college students of the cloth undefined, facing the chemistry and applied sciences of yarn and upholstery dyeing and completing.
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Extra info for Chemistry & Technology of Fabric Preparation & Finishing
The preferred commercial method of hydrolyzing polyvinyl acetate is to use catalytic amounts of sodium methoxide in methanol. The reaction proceeds through trans-esterification where the by-product, methyl acetate, is easy to remove by distillation. The parent polyvinyl acetate forms branches during polymerization by a chain transfer mechanism at the methyl group of the ester. However, the corresponding polyvinyl alcohol is lower in molecular weight and virtually linear. The branch points a r e ester linkages which a r e broken during the hydrolysis step.
C. Chemical Wax Chemical was is defined as the mono-ester of a fatty acid and a fatty alcohol. It is found in nature a s coatings on leaves, stems and berries. Natures role for these waxes is to reduce the evaporation of moisture from plants, which is very important for those growing in tropical climates. True waxes are less easily hydrolyzed and do not form acrolein when heated. Acrolein is a toxic compound formed when glycerine is overheated. 36 1. Fatty Alcohols The similarity between fatty acids a n d fatty alcohols is the long alkyl chain.
Preservatives prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi in size mixes a n d on sized yarn. Cresol, phenol, salicylic acid a r e examples of preservatives. IX. REFERENCES 30 CHAPTER 3. SCOURING Natural fibers contain oils, fats, waxes, minerals, leafy matter a n d motes as impurities t h a t interfere with dyeing and finishing. Synthetic fibers contain producer spin finishes, coning oils and/or knitting oils. Mill grease used t o lubricate processing equipment mill dirt, temporary fabric markings a n d the like may contaminate fabrics as they are being produced.