Chemistry of Iodine in Reactor Safety (workshop)

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Extra resources for Chemistry of Iodine in Reactor Safety (workshop) (csni-r1996-6)

Example text

Historical information in a case report (Merliss 1972) indicates that ‘carbol marasmus’ was a common occupational disorder of physicians and their assistants during the mid-19th Century when carbolic acid sprays (1:40 phenol in water) were commonly used for antisepsis in operating rooms. Among the characteristics of this disorder were anorexia leading to progressive weight loss and excess production of saliva. 5 year period. Exposed both via inhalation of the vapors and dermally from frequent spills, the patient’s symptoms included both loss of appetite and weight loss.

No significant histological abnormalities were detected in the kidneys of rhesus monkeys, rats, or mice exposed continuously to 5 ppm phenol in air for 90 days (Sandage 1961). Dermal Effects. Historical information in a case report Merliss (1972) indicates that ‘carbol marasmus’ was a common occupational disorder of physicians and their assistants during the mid-19th Century. Among the characteristics of this disorder was an odd form of pigmentation which commonly occurred in the urine but also occasionally colored the sclera of the eyes, the skin over the nose, and the cheek bones.

Since only a range was given for the exposure level (26–52 ppm), the exact level of phenol in air that resulted in renal injury was not established and may be as low as 26 ppm or as high as 52 ppm. Interpretation of this study is further complicated by an apparent lack of controls. However, the kidney pathology was so severe, particularly in the guinea pigs, that it is difficult to ascribe the effects to any source other than the phenol exposure. The lower limit of the exposure range, 26 ppm, can be considered a LOAEL for renal injury in guinea pigs and rabbits.

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