By Mrinal K. Bhattacharjee
This textbook discusses how a few of the sorts of antibiotics and comparable medicinal drugs paintings to remedy infections. Then it delves into the very critical subject of ways micro organism have gotten proof against those antibiotics. acceptable for a one-semester path at both the graduate or complicated undergraduate point, this textbook includes labored examples of (1) experimental tactics and (2) studying data.
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Additional info for Chemistry of Antibiotics and Related Drugs
In active transport molecules are transported against a concentration gradient (from low to high concentration level) and this process requires extra energy. Depending on the source of this extra energy, active transport can be classified into two types. It is called primary active transport if the source of energy is a high energy compound such as ATP and is called secondary active transport if the energy comes from an existing concentration gradient of some other molecule or ion. The existing gradient may be that of Na+ or K+, as in transmission of nerve signals or a proton gradient that is used in respiration (oxidative phosphorylation).
3). More than one mechanism may be applicable for some antibiotics. 8 Synthetic Antibiotics Semisynthetic antibiotics were made in the laboratory by chemically modifying natural antibiotics with the purpose of improving their properties. 8 Synthetic Antibiotics 37 bio-stability, and lower frequency of resistance development. The ﬁrst example of semisynthetic antibiotic was tetracycline which was made by catalytic hydrogenation of chlorotetracycline (the Cl was replaced with H) at Pﬁzer laboratory.
6 Resistance Development by Resistance Gene Acquisition Alexander Fleming’s prediction that bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics by point mutations has been proven by him as well as numerous others later. However, if point mutations were the only mechanism for resistance development then this would have been only a nuisance and not a serious health problem since the resistance level will be low and the bacteria can be killed by the usual dose of the antibiotic. 6 Resistance Development by Resistance Gene Acquisition 33 predicted.