By I. Hamerton (auth.), Ian Hamerton (eds.)
After epoxy resins and polyimides, cyanate esters arguably shape the main well-developed workforce of high-temperature, thermosetting polymers. They own a few fascinating functionality features which lead them to of accelerating technological significance, the place their a bit of better expenses are applicable. The relevant finish makes use of for cyanate esters are as matrix resins for published wiring board laminates and structural composites. For the electronics markets, the low dielectric loss features, dimen sional balance at molten solder temperatures and perfect adhesion to conductor metals at temperatures as much as 250°C, are fascinating. of their use in aerospace composites, unmodified cyanate esters supply two times the frac ture sturdiness of multifunctional epoxies, whereas attaining a provider tem perature intermediate among epoxy and bis-maleimide services. functions in radome development and airplane with diminished radar signatures make the most of the strangely low capacitance homes of cyanate esters and linked low dissipation components. whereas a few advertisement cyanate ester monomers and prepoly mers at the moment are on hand, so far there was no finished overview of the chemistry and up to date technological functions of this flexible kinfolk of resins. The goals of the current textual content are to provide those in a com pact, readable shape. The paintings is essentially aimed toward fabrics scientists and polymer technologists enthusiastic about study and improvement within the chemical, electronics, aerospace and adhesives industries. it truly is was hoping that complicated undergraduates and postgraduates in polymer chemistry and expertise, and fabrics science/technology will locate it an invaluable introduc tion and resource of reference during their studies.
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Additional info for Chemistry and Technology of Cyanate Ester Resins
These monomers are arbitrarily organized into seven classes, based on the nature of their structure, for the purpose of a brief and general discussion. Structures are given in the corresponding tables along with melting points, yields and references for syntheses. 8, these monomers have at least two cyanate functional groups attached to the same benzene ring. They are synthesized from the corresponding resorcinols, hydroquinones and phloroglucinol by the cyanogen halide-triethylamine route. Monomers with cyanate groups on adjacent ring positions are unknown.
2 Hydrogen bonding Substituent electronic effects on hydrogen bonding of monofunctional phenyl cyanates have been studied systematically . 5, the terminal nitrogen in the phenyl cyanate structure is the proton acceptor site. For a series of phenyl cyanates, a relative hydrogen bond acceptor strength (RAS referenced to benzonitrile) was determined from the shift in infrared OR stretching frequency (,1 VOH) on complex formation with reference hydrogen bond donor compounds (methanol, phenol, p-chlorophenol) in a non-hydrogen-bonding solvent (carbon tetrachloride).
As a result of the structural regularity and rigidity, these monomers readily crystallize. 11. 10, these monomers have a high aromatic and carbon content but are structurally planar. They also tend to react at their melting points. 12. The crosslink density of the resulting polymer is considerably lowered, and a thermoplastic toughness results. The oligomer allows for considerable control over this variable. However, oligomer melt viscosities are considerably higher than cyanate monomer melt viscosities, and solution prepregging is often necessary.