By Jawid Mojaddedi
Regardless of Rumi's (d. 1273) contemporary emergence as a best-selling poet within the English-speaking global, basic questions about his teachings, resembling the connection of his Sufi mysticism to the broader Islamic faith, stay contested. during this groundbreaking examine, Jawid Mojaddedi reaches to the guts of the problem by means of studying Rumi's teachings on walaya (Friendship with God) in mild of past discourse within the wider Sufi culture and juridico-theological Islam. Walaya is not just significant to Rumi's teachings, yet types the foundation for the party of intimacy, conversation with the Divine, and transcendence of traditional religiosity in his poetry. And but walaya is the element of Sufism which has confirmed the main tough to reconcile with juridico-theological Islam.
In addition to its specialise in Rumi, Beyond Dogma provides a perceptive research of the old improvement of the discourse on walaya within the formative centuries of Sufism. this era coincides with the time whilst juridico-theological Islam rose to dominance, as mirrored within the harmonizing efforts of theoretical Sufi writings, specially the manuals of the 10th and 11th centuries. Mojaddedi's research enables a nuanced and contextualized overview of Rumi's teachings on walaya, which had already attracted quite a number perspectives sooner than his time: from arguments in want of its superiority to Prophethood, to promises of subordinate deference in the direction of the Prophetic historical past interpreted through juridico-theological students. within the procedure, Beyond Dogma permits a clean evaluate of the influential early Sufi manuals of their old context, whereas additionally highlighting the importance for juridico-theological students of basic dogma within the strategy of consolidating their very own dominance.
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Additional info for Beyond dogma : Rumi’s teachings on friendship with God and early Sufi theories
Rumi’s view that people still carry that mystical potential and that the divine realm is not only the source of all spirits but also remains so close to all humanity, if people would only learn to see properly by completing the mystical path, is well known to be recurrent in his poetry. It is also worth noting that he frequently stresses this aspect of his teaching in his discourses, using the most explicit and unambiguous language possible, including in the following passage: With hands, feet, ears, mind, eyes and mouth, you are a human being like the Prophets and God’s Friends who attained fortunes and reached the goal.
7 32 beyond dogma In addition to pairing the terms anbiyā and awliyā frequently and classifying Prophets and God’s Friends together like this, it should be clariﬁed that Rumi emphasizes their likeness both synchronically and diachronically. That is to say, in Rumi’s view God’s Friends may be either successors to Prophets or their contemporary associates. For instance, in the following passage from the ﬁrst book of The Masnavī, he quotes the Prophet Muhammad himself as asserting that some of his contemporaries are the same as him inwardly: Remove then your own attributes to view Such a pure essence which belongs to you!
The Masnavi Like the Fīhi mā fīh, Rumi’s Masnavi also belongs to an established genre of Suﬁ literature, but in this case it is one of the longest examples of it ever produced. ”45 Rumi begins this poem with a prose introduction that refers to it as “The Couplets [Book]” (kitāb al-mathnawī). This title is simply the name of the form of poetry adopted for it, the ‘mathnawī ’ form, and so some have preferred to distinguish it by adding its most common epithet and referring to it instead as “The Couplets of Inner Meaning” (mathnawī-yi ma nawī).