By Sunil S. Jambhekar, Philip J. Breen
Simple Pharmacokinetics presents an realizing of the rules of pharmacokinetics and biopharmaceutics and of the way those rules might be utilized to accomplish profitable drug treatment.
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Extra info for Basic Pharmacokinetics
This constant slope, y/ x, is the change in y divided by the change in x. By contrast, in a curved line, there is an instantaneous slope at each point along the curve (calculated by finding the slope of the tangent to that particular point). This instantaneous slope also goes by the name of the derivative dy/dx. We will now demonstrate the concept of slope as it arises in pharmacokinetics. 4 shows some typical units used in pharmacokinetics as well as the mathematical rules that apply to units.
Therefore, it is important to recognize that the knowledge of this parameter is essential in determining the dose of a drug required to attain the desired initial plasma concentration. It is called an apparent volume because it is not a true volume; however, it does have the appearance of being the actual volume into which a given amount of drug would be diluted in order to produce the observed concentration. In order to determine this parameter, following the administration of a drug as an intravenous bolus, in theory we would have to know the amount of drug in the body at a time and the corresponding plasma concentration.
11), remains unchanged: V= X0 . 11) explains why the apparent volume of distribution is independent of the administered dose. , the volume of plasma water) to as high as greater than 200–300 L. As mentioned above, the ability of the drug to penetrate the lipophilic tissues will determine the value of the apparent volume of drug distribution. 8 Semilogarithmic plot of plasma concentration (Cp ) versus time following three different doses of drug as an intravenous bolus. Note the difference in the intercepts, which are the initial plasma concentrations, (Cp )0 .