By Miquel Porta
This 6th version of A Dictionary of Epidemiology -- the main up-to-date seeing that its inception -- displays the profound considerable and methodological adjustments that experience come to represent epidemiology and its linked disciplines. backed by means of the foreign Epidemiological organization, this ebook is still the fundamental reference for a person learning or operating in epidemiology, biostatistics, public future health, medication, or the becoming quantity wellbeing and fitness sciences within which epidemiologic competency is now required.
More than simply a dictionary, this article is a necessary guidebook to the kingdom of the technological know-how. It deals the most up-tp-date, authoritative definitions of phrases vital to biomedical and public overall healthiness literature -- every thing from confounding and incidence rate to epigenetic inheritance and Number Needed to Treat. As epidemiology maintains to alter and develop, A Dictionary of Epidemiology will stay its booklet of checklist.
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Additional info for A Dictionary of Epidemiology
Asymmetry of information Differences (“asymmetry”) between a patient, or member of the public, and a health care professional, or insurer, in the information and knowledge available about illness and health. The belief that such informational advantages are all on one side (the professional’s), is a too narrow view of what the relevant information is. While the professional generally possesses superior medical information, the patient possesses the best information on her preferences over the options, and she will usually be more competent in judging the value (utility) assigned to alternative clinical possibilities.
67,110 bayesian statistics A method of statistical inference that begins with formulation of probabilities of hypotheses (called prior probabilities) before the data under analysis are taken into account. It then uses the data and a model for the data probability (usually the same model used by other methods, such as a logistic model) to update the probabilities of the hypotheses. The resulting updated probabilities are called posterior probabilities. Central to this updating is Bayes’ theorem,1,7,34,37,101,111 although not all Bayesian methods require explicit use of the theorem and not all uses of the theorem are Bayesian methods.
2. The ability of a diagnostic test to correctly classify the presence or absence of the target disorder. The diagnostic accuracy of a test is usually expressed by its sensitivity and specificity. 27,28 See also context; network; transmission of infection. acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (Syn: acquired immune deficiency syndrome) The late clinical stage of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), recognized as a distinct syndrome in 1981. The opportunistic or indicator diseases associated with AIDS include certain protozoan and helminth infections, fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections, and some types of cancer.