By Desmond Seward
For over 100 years England many times invaded France at the pretext that her kings had a correct to the French throne. France was once a wide, unwieldy nation, England was once small and negative, yet for the main half she ruled the conflict, sacking cities and castles and profitable battles - together with such wonderful victories as Crecy, Poitiers and Agincourt, yet then the English run of luck started to fail, and in 4 brief years she misplaced Normandy and eventually her final stronghold in Guyenne. The protagonists of the Hundred yr battle are one of the such a lot vibrant in eu background: for the English, Edward III, the Black Prince and Henry V, later immortalized by way of Shakespeare; for the French, the best suited yet inept John II, who died a prisoner in London, Charles V, who very approximately overcame England and the enigmatic Charles VII, who did finally force the English out. Desmond Seward's account lines the alterations that ended in France's ultimate victory and brings to existence the entire intrigue and color of the final chivalric combats as they gave option to a extra brutal smooth conflict
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Additional resources for A Brief History of the Hundred Years War: The English in France, 1337-1453 (Brief Histories)
The history of the Victorian family is an ever-expanding field. Some of the most prominent works are: Mintz, Prison of Expectations; Mintz and Kellogg, Domestic Revolutions; Stevenson, The Victorian Homefront; and Ryan, Cradle of the Middle Class. Family studies have grown to include the father’s role. Recent studies show that instead of becoming the mother’s domain in the nineteenth century, the family was a “meeting ground” of the sexes. See Robert L. Griswold, Fatherhood in America: A History (New York: Basic, 1993); Rotundo, American Manhood; and Frank, Life with Father.
Parents expected their children either to enter an apprenticeship, to gain employment, or to scavenge for materials to help in the family’s survival. Economic hardships also forced working-class families to depend on kin and neighbors. Few networks of support beyond churches and benevolence groups existed in antebellum America, so help from friends and family could mean the difference between surviving an economic panic or being plunged even further into poverty. Socializing with friends and neighbors was also a hallmark of the working classes.
Africans inhabited all the colonies, and every colony had slavery. In states like Pennsylvania and New York, where slavery was abolished last in the Northern states, slavery remained a fairly recent memory. 24 BUSY HANDS And as border states, Pennsylvania and Ohio had growing numbers of former slaves who escaped from the South. African American families had characteristics in common with middle-class white families, and only because of slavery and racism did they have to adapt and accommodate. The two-parent, male-headed, nuclear family was the dominant household among both slave and free populations.